Day 63-Spoken English to teachers -Direct and Indirect Speech-Grammar

Day 63-Spoken English to teachers -Direct and Indirect Speech -Learn Grammar

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SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-63(30-5-2016)
_Direct and Indirect Speech_
There are two ways to report what someone says or thinks:
🏻1. Direct speech shows a person’s exact words. Quotation marks (“....”) are a sign that the words are the EXACT words that a person used.

Direct speech:
a. Mary asked, “Where are you going?”
b. Jayesh replied, “I’m going home.”

🏻2. Reported speech puts the speaker’s words or ideas into a sentence without quotation marks. Noun clauses are usually used.
( In reported speech, the reader does not assume that the words are the speaker’s exact words; often, they are a paraphrase of the speaker’s words.

Reported speech:
a. Mary asked Jayesh where he was going.
b. Jayesh said he was going home.

Use of the word “that” is optional in reported speech. Both of the following sentences are correct:
1. 🏻The boy said that he was lost.
2. 🏻The boy said he was lost.
There are various rules to change direct speech to indirect speech....

Let's see them now

First and second person pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change to the third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.
(I = he, she; me = him, her; my = his, her; mine = his, hers; we = they...)
- She said, “he’s my son”.
She said that he was her son. 

-“I’m ill”, she said. 
She said that she was ill.

This used in time expressions usually becomes that.
🏻1. a) She said, “She’s coming this week”. 
b) She said that she was coming that week.

This and that used as adjectives usually change to the. 
2. a) He said, “I bought this pearl/these pearls for my mother”.
b) He said that he had bought the pearl/the pearls for his mother.

This, these used as pronouns can become it, they/them.
3.a) He came back with two knives and said, “I found these beside the king’s bed”. 
b) He said he had found them beside the king’s bed.

4. a) He said, “We will discuss this tomorrow”. 
b)He said that they would discuss it (the matter) the next day.

The other rules of conversion of direct speech to indirect speech will be seen in the next sessions...🏻

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