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SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-64(31-5-2016)
Let's see some more rules :
A. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:
DIRECT SPEECH - INDIRECT SPEECH*
today that day
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow the next day/the following day
the day after tomorrow in two day’s time
next week/year etc. the following week/year etc.
last week/year etc. the previous week/year etc.
a year etc. ago a year before/the previous year
~“I saw her the day before yesterday”, he said.
He said he’d seen her two days before.
~ “I’ll do it tomorrow”, he promised.
He promised that he would do it the next day.
~She said, “My father died a year ago”.
She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.
But if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not necessary:
~At breakfast this morning he said, “I’ll be very busy today”.
At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.
here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant:
~At the station he said, “I’ll be here again tomorrow”.
He said that he’d be there again the next day.
Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase:
~She said, “You can sit here, Tom”.
She told Tom that he could sit beside her.
STATEMENTS IN INDIRECT SPEECH: TENSE CHANGES NECESSARY
- Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He says that ... This is usual when we are:
- reporting a conversation that is still going on
- reading a letter and reporting what it says
- reading instructions and reporting them
- reporting a statement that someone makes very often,
e.g. Tom says that he’ll never get married.
When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can report the direct speech without any change of tense:
PAUL (phoning from the station): I’m trying to get a taxi.
ANN (to Mary, who is standing beside her): Paul says he is trying to get a taxi.
Let's see some other rules in a the next sessions....
Day wise Spoken English-Grammar: